First Session
The Economic Value of Intellectual Property Rights

Moderator: Mr. Sherif Saadallah, Executive Director, IP and Economic Development, WIPO
Reporter: Ahmed Abou Ali, Partner, Hassouna & Abou Ali Law Firm, Secretary General AEPPI, Cairo

1- Intellectual property Rights: Trade and Investment
Speaker: Dr. Michael P. Ryan, Associate Professor, Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business, and Project Manager, International Intellectual Property Institute (IIPI), Washington D.C.
Professor Ryan spoke under the title “Knowledge Dependency or Knowledge Development” about the role of IPR in promoting technology transfer and managerial know-how flows by encouraging multinational enterprises trade and foreign direct investment. Professor Ryan argued based on studies done by UNCTAD and World Bank during the 1980s and 1990s, that weak IPRs discourage the kind of technology-intensive, organizational know-how diffusing activities of business enterprises based in the North which are most desired by the up-and-coming business enterprises in the developing and transitioning countries in the South and East. He pointed out that countries of highest protection of IPR get higher level of trade, investments and licensed technologies. He gave the example of Jordan as a country with a vision for an IPR country; and as a result it is becoming an attraction center for biotechnology and medical industries. He concluded that effective IPRs are vital tools of knowledge-based economic development.
2- Intellectual Property as a Business Tool
Speaker: Dr. Prabuddha Ganguli, Advisor, Vision-IPR, Mumbai, India
Dr. Ganguli explored value creation, wealth generation and wealth realization as reasons for which people innovate. He then turned to the notion of knowledge and knowledge canopy and divided it into several categories. Dr. Ganguli described the government’s role as the creation of enabling environment in terms of laws and infrastructure for progressive business and ensuring that reasonable requirement of the public is met in terms of accessibility and affordability. He further explored the trends in IP innovation and quoted a 2003 study by Mairesse and Mohnen that concluded that firms in a wide range of industry sectors between 1990 and 2001 industry financed R&D in the OECD region rose 51% in real terms from USD 244 billion to 368 billion, or from 1.31% to 1.48% of GDP. He also pointed out that the growing technological complexity of products and processes, increased technological opportunities created by recent scientific advances are forcing firms to work in greater collaboration. Dr. Ganguli concluded that there is need for formulating policies that encourage good licensing practices in the public and private sectors clarify and reinforce research exemptions and explore alternative access arrangements and create mechanisms for sharing bundles of IP operating patent tools among others.

3- Branding in a Business Strategy
Speaker: Mr. Simon Anholt, Author and Government Advisor
Mr. Anholt, who is regarded as a leading specialist in creating brand strategies for countries, cities and regions, discussed the concept of a brand, how it is created, what is its value and its relation to IPR. He said that there are two sets of reasons for people to buy goods and service. One is whether it works better and its price.
The second, which is in his view the real reason, is consumer preference and how the good or service is important to the consumer. Mr. Anholt distinguished branding by stating that it is not advertising, promotion or public relation; that it could be a style, logo or trademark which is unique and that it is sophisticated in the sense that it describes the consumer and defines things about him/her. In summary, he says branding is a self expression and that is the actual value of a brand. This value is the difference between fixed assets and market value.
Second Session
National Strategies and Policies for Intellectual Property
Leading to Growth and Development
Moderator: Dr. Negad Shaarawi, Chairman, Egyptian Drugstores Co., Board Member, AEPPI, Cairo
Reporter: Mr. Karim El Helaly, Associate, Zaki Hashem & Partners

1- Keynote Speaker: His Excellency Dr. Amr Salama,
Minister for Higher Education and Scientific Research, Government of Egypt The keynote speech in this session was delivered by the representative of the Minister for Higher Education and Scientific Research Mr. Moustafa El-Seesy. The subject of this presentation was the technological developments and the challenges it presents to undeveloped countries like Egypt. Mr. El-Seesy spoke about the development of organizations handling IPR in order to support existing industries and its ability to compete. Also, the speaker focused on the role of the Agency for the Development of Innovation and Inventions, business incubators and marketing contracts as tools for economic development.

2- National Innovation Policies

Speaker: Dr. Michael P. Ryan, Associate Professor, Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business, and Project Manager, International Intellectual Property Institute (IIPI), Washington D.C.

Dr. Ryan addressed issues related to national innovation policies, where the speaker shed the light on technological improvement and its important role in breeding economic growth giving examples like the UK Royal scientific societies. Also, pointing out that sharing ideas and the cross fertilization thereof e.g. controlling energy the integration of technology into economic life. Important aspects as such are institutional innovations, elaborating on the German model and the research universities whereby acquisition of new technology was integrated into study and education. Also, he shed the light on the Korean model which invested in basic education and research institutions with a commitment to R&D and the gap between Korea and Egypt. Finally, the speaker focused on the US model as the best model for such research institutions which now evolved to what is commonly known as University licensing.
3- Strategies for Protecting Intellectual Property Rights Related to Inventions and Research Results
Speaker: Dr. Prabuddha Ganguli, Advisor, Vision-IPR, Mumbai, India

Dr. Prabuddha Ganguli addressed the importance of managing intellectual property rights, and encouraging developing countries to move from defensive practice (which focus on filing) to offensive practices (litigation and management) giving an example of Barr Laboratories strategy which has earned $200 million years by challenging patents it considers breakable, also Barr case against Lilly’s Prozac patent which was settled in January 1999, when Lilly paid Barr $4 million to go away. The speaker shed the light on the importance of computer patenting and business methods an issue that is not present under the Egyptian IP regime giving a good example such as Dell patents concerning their built-to-order competitive advantage.

4- The Egyptian Pharmaceutical Industry – Future Options, Delivering the Future

Speaker: Dr. Magdi Hassan, Chairman of the Egyptian Pharmaceutical Holding Company
The Fourth presentation was addressing the Egyptian pharmaceutical industry; the first speaker Mr. Magdy Hassan Chairman of the Egyptian Pharmaceutical Holding Company, who’ve shed the light on the development in the Egyptian pharmaceutical sector and the important contribution of this sector to the role of innovation in Egypt. Also, he tackled important issues related to the security of pharmaceutical products availed by the local industry; improvement of plants; reasonable prices, the local equivalent for foreign products. Also, he stressed on the issue of training employees and preparing them for the innovative world.

Speaker: Dr. Ahmed El-Hakim, Director, External Affairs and Policy, Pfizer, Middle East
The Fifth presentation was made by Dr. Ahmed El-Hakim Director, External Affairs and Policy, Pfizer, Middle East.; where he addressed key issues in the pharmaceutical industries such as research and development, data protection, and the incentive to innovate. The speaker shed the light on the important role of R&D in the pharmaceutical industry and the reliance on inventions to improve and avail the best pharmaceutical products in terms of efficiency and safety. Also, the speaker shed the light on the important role of the Ministry of Health in availing the data protection to innovative products that provides the incentive for further development of better products.

Fourth Session
Intellectual Property Rights and the Public Policy Domain

Moderator: Mr. Ahmed Abou Ali, Partner, Hassouna & Abou Ali Law Firm Secretary General AEPPI, Cairo
Reporter: Mr. Hazem Fathi, Senior Associate, Hassouna & Abou Ali Law Firm

1- Keynote Speaker: His Excellency Dr. Hassan Khedr,
Minister for Internal Trade and Supply, Government of Egypt, Cairo The keynote speech was given on behalf of the Minister for Internal Trade and Supply, Government of Egypt by Ambassador Adel Saleh, Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Relations. The speech evolved around the role of IPR in the economic development and attracting foreign direct investment. He stressed the fact that IPR contribute to the added value and increase of employment levels. He also spoke about the importance of trademark protection and the role of the Ministry in promoting such protection.
2 - Socio Economic Implications of the Evolving IPR Paradigms.
Speaker: Dr. Prabuddha Ganguli, Advisor, Vision-IPR, Mumbai, India

Dr. Prabuddha Ganguli started by discussing the correct time to introduce and enforce IPR laws and the options available to the IPR holder. He also addressed national policy issues (access to basic research, review of patenting system and process, enforcement mechanisms and national taxation system) in patenting with a highlight of key features in patenting biotechnology. Dr. Ganguli later addressed key considerations in IP licensing, rationale and motivation for IP protection and what the institutional IP policy should lead to. Dr. Ganguli argues that IPR paradigm is shifting from protection of private rights to community rights.

3 - Contribution of Competition Law in Economic Growth
Speaker: Mr. Samir Hamza, Helmy & Hamza Law Firm (Baker & Mckenzie), VP, AEPPI, Cairo

Mr. Samir Hamza presented Egypt’s newly adopted Competition and Antitrust Law, Law No. 3 of 2005 and the executive regulations to come into force during May 2005. Mr. Hamza started by distinguishing between free competition laws and consumer protection laws. He then rules out any conflict between this new law and Law No. 82 of 2002 concerning Protection of Intellectual Property as both serve jointly to enhance economic progress and the public interest. On Law 3 of 2005, Mr. Hamza said that the new law opted to utilize the “Per se” rule relying on a 25% percentage of the market as an indication of dominant position. He elaborated that the law does not have an extra territoriality concept, although it can apply to actions committed outside Egypt if it results in anti competition actions or restrict competition or damage competition in Egypt. When addressing the penal section of the law, Mr. Hamza stated that the law does not adopt imprisonment as a punishment but applies financial fines to crimes committed in violation of the law.

4 - Policy Options for Country Branding in Developing Countries
Speaker: Mr. Simon Anholt, Author and Government Advisor

Mr. Anholt continued the discussion on branding by asking the question “what is needed to create a branding program?”. He stated that countries will compete daily with neighbors or blocks and regions for tourism, investments and export sales at the time there is limited business that can go around. He claims that countries that start with unknown or poor reputation will be marginalized. He further argues that if reputation is clear and positive, products made in that country will carry an extra advantage

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